In Ireland we are all aware of the dangers of plastic to our environment and have seen the distressing pictures of the damaging impacts of plastic on sea creatures. Plastic is associated with the fashion industry, as some materials used in the fashion industry are derived from oil. Synthetic materials are now commonly used in the manufacture of our clothes; it is estimated that worldwide, 60% of our clothing is now made from synthetic materials. These may impact on our environment, and therefore on us. Polyester is the single most used textile; other fabrics include nylon and acrylic, all of which are forms of plastic [1]. When these materials are washed, small fibres are released from the fabrics, which are then generally discharged into a wastewater treatment plant. Tiny lighter fibres can pass straight through the treatment plant and, as a result, synthetic materials are a significant source of microplastics in our rivers and seas [2,3]. It is estimated that there are over a quarter of a million tons of plastic particles in the world’s oceans comprising a minimum of 5.25 trillion particles; 93% of these are in the microplastic size range of less than 5mm [4]. Heavier microfiber particles sink and remain in the sewage sludge. This sludge is then spread on agricultural land. It is estimated that the majority of global microplastics may be in the soil [5], and the Irish Environmental Protection Agency estimate that over a billion microplastic particles are spread on agricultural land in Ireland each year and that “this is probably an underestimation” [6]. These fibres persist and have been detected in soil up to 15 years later [7], where it is thought that they may pose a threat to soil fertility [8].

Unlike natural fibres, which decompose over time in the natural environment, clothes created from synthetic fibres are non-biodegradable, and may spend 30 or more years in a landfill before they start to decompose [9,10]. It is important to note that synthetic fibres are not the only source of microplastics in our environment and other sources include the decomposition of plastic bags, bottles, products from the wear and tear of tyres etc.

Which materials do these particles come from and do they pose a problem?

Polyester fleece and woven polyester fabrics have been found to release the highest number of microplastics, and over 6 million fibres have been documented from a 5 kg wash [11,12]. Polyester-cotton blends release fewer particles than either polyester or acrylic materials; nevertheless, a 6 kg load of acrylic materials can release over 700,000 fibres per wash [13]. Of note, the number of particles increases with higher temperature washes, and with the use of detergents [13]. In addition, recent evidence indicates that the number of microfibres released to the air directly from wearing synthetic clothes, may be as important as the number released into water [14]. Synthetic fibres do not dissolve easily in water, and, in addition, they are also able to absorb and transport chemical substances [15]. Aside from often having been treated themselves with chemicals such as flame retardants [16], the particles tend to be sticky and attract other persistent organic pollutants, such as organochlorine pesticides and polyaromatic hydrocarbons [19]. These toxic compounds are persistent, accumulate in the body and some of them can act as endocrine disruptors. In addition, micro-organisms may live on and multiply on microplastics, forming biofilms.

It is of concern that the microplastics are the size of the preferred food size ingested by zooplankton; zooplankton are the tiny organisms at the bottom of the marine food chain. Zooplankton which may have consumed microplastics, are then eaten by larger creatures, and it is therefore no surprise that microplastics have been found higher up in the food chain, in crabs [17], and in one third of fish caught in the UK [18]. Microplastics are also ascending the marine food web in Ireland and have been found in fish in Lough Corrib, invertebrate species in the river Slaney, and in seabird’s eggs in Galway. In 2016 tap water from fourteen countries was examined for the presence of microplastics; overall, 83% of the samples contained microfibres [19]. Microplastics have also been discovered Irish well water samples and in mains water [6].

The impacts of these microfibres on health are not yet known. The World Health Organization [20] reported in 2019 that “The fate, transport and health impacts of microplastics following ingestion are not well studied and no epidemiological or human studies on ingested microplastics have been identified”. The eminent medical journal “The Lancet” reported that it is most concerning “how little is known about the effects of microplastic consumption on human health” [21]. The EU has also expressed concern relation to the human health impacts of microplastics in the air, water and food reporting that microplastics have “an unknown impact on health” [22]. While we have no clear evidence that microplastics cause health problems, it is sensible to reduce or stop our use of these products until we know more about the impacts of these particles and the chemicals they may carry on our health.

There are several ways in which we can reduce the levels of microfibres. The most important thing that we can do is to demand that synthetic clothes be labelled as sources of microfibres. Then we can choose not to purchase these products, in particular polyester fleece, and instead use wool, linen, cotton and other natural materials for our clothes. We can also keep our clothes for longer, and use second hand shops, as new clothes release the highest amount of fibres [23]. The methods have been summarised by Friends of the Earth [24]. We can also wash at low temperatures, use liquid detergent as it is less abrasive, fill the washing machine, as this reduces friction, reduce the spin speed, and avoid tumble drying. Some products reduce the microfibres released e.g. Cora ball or Guppy Friend. Using a fabric softener can reduce the number of microfibres released by up to a third [13]. We also need to investigate other sources of material, e.g. ethically sourced cotton or hemp, and to design washing machines that can trap these fibres [25].

According to my dictionary, there are two definitions of fashion: one refers to the latest style of clothing or other item, and the second definition refers to a way of doing things. Fashion can makes us feel good about our bodies. The fashion of how we source our clothes also needs to be examined. Are we are now facing into an era when we can feel good about ourselves and our impact on our environment too?

by Dr. Elizabeth Cullen is a member of An Taisce and of the Irish Doctors for the Environment

References

[1] https://www.vox.com/the-goods/2018/9/19/17800654/clothes-plastic-pollution-polyester-washing-machine

[2] https://cdn.friendsoftheearth.uk/sites/default/files/downloads/reducing-household-plastics_0.pdf

[3] Yang L et al Microfiber release from different fabrics during washing. Environ Pollut. 2019 Jun;249:136-143. doi: 10.1016/j.envpol.2019.03.011. Epub 2019 Mar 8.

[4] Eriksen M et al Plastic pollution in the world’s oceans: More than 5 trillion plastic pieces weighing over250,000 tons afloat at sea https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0111913#pone-0111913-t001

[5] Hurley R.R. and Nizetto L Fate and occurrence of micro(nano)plastics in soils: Knowledge gaps and possible risks Current Opinion in Environmental Science & Health Volume 1, February 2018, Pages 6-11health.

[6] Mahon A.A. et al Scope, Fate, Risks and Impacts of Microplastic Pollution in Freshwater Systems Report 210 EPA 2017.

[7] Zubris K.A. and Richards B.K. Synthetic fibers as an indicator of land application of sludge. Environ Pollut. 2005 Nov;138(2):201-11.

[8] Wang J et al Microplastics as contaminants in the soil environment: A mini-review. Sci Total Environ. 2019 Nov 15;691:848-857.

[9] https://www.trustedclothes.com/blog/2016/11/25/natural-synthetic-fabrics/

[10] Zambrano et al Microfibres generated from the laundering of cotton, rayon and polyester based fabrics and their aquatic biodegradation. Mar Pollut Bull. 2019 May;142:394-407. doi: 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2019.02.062. Epub 2019 Apr 5.

[11] Carney-Almroth BM et al Quantifying shredding of synthetic fibres from textiles: a source of microplastics released into the environment Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2018 Jan;25(2):1191-1199.

[12] De Falco et al Evaluation of microplastic release caused by textile washing processes of synthetic fabrics. Environ Pollut. 2018 May;236:916-925. doi: 10.1016/j.envpol.2017.10.057. Epub 2017 Oct 27.

[13] Napper I.E. and Thompson R.C. Release of synthetic microplastic plastic fibres from domestic washing machines: Effects of fabric type and washing conditions. Mar Pollut Bull. 2016 Nov 15;112(1-2):39-45. doi: 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2016.09.025. Epub 2016 Sep 26.

[14] De Falco T et al Microfiber Release to Water, Via Laundering, and to Air, via Everyday Use: A Comparison between Polyester Clothing with Differing Textile Parameters. Environ Sci Technol. 2020 Mar 17;54(6):3288-3296. doi: 10.1021/acs.est.9b06892. Epub 2020 Mar 9.

[15] Sillanpaa M and Sainio Release of polyester and cotton fibers from textiles in machine washings. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2017 Aug;24(23):19313-19321. doi: 10.1007/s11356-017-9621-1. Epub 2017 Jul 1.

[16] https://www.embopress.org/doi/full/10.15252/embr.201846701

[17] Horn D, Miller M et al. Microplastics are ubiquitous on California beaches and enter the coastal food web through consumption by Pacific mole crabs. Mar Pollut Bull. 2019 Feb;139:231-237. doi: 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2018.12.039. Epub 2019 Jan 4.

[18] https://ourblueplanet.bbcearth.com/blog/?article=why-do-marine-animals-eat-plastic

[19] https://orbmedia.org/stories/Invisibles_plastics the full report is at https://orbmedia.org/stories/Invisibles_plastics

[20] Microplastics in drinking-water. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2019. Licence: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO.

[21] https://www.thelancet.com/journals/lanplh/article/PIIS2542-5196(17)30121-3/fulltext

[22] http://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_IP-18-5_en.htm

[23] Sillanpaa MK Release of polyester and cotton fibres from textiles in machine washings Environmental Science and Pollution Research 24(11) · July 2017 

[24] https://friendsoftheearth.uk/plastics/microfibres-plastic-in-our-clothes

[25]https://www.vox.com/the-goods/2018/9/19/17800654/clothes-plastic-pollution-polyester-washing-machine